python network programming

Short guide for myself to get up and running

This is a simple Client that connects to www.google.com and sends "GET / HTTP/1.1" - and then reads the google homepage.

Quite simple... but worth looking at.

Simple Client

#Socket client example in python

import socket   #for sockets
import sys  #for exit

#create an INET, STREAMing socket
try:
    s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
except socket.error:
    print 'Failed to create socket'
    sys.exit()

print 'Socket Created'

host = 'www.google.com';
port = 80;

try:
    remote_ip = socket.gethostbyname( host )

except socket.gaierror:
    #could not resolve
    print 'Hostname could not be resolved. Exiting'
    sys.exit()

#Connect to remote server
s.connect((remote_ip , port))

print 'Socket Connected to ' + host + ' on ip ' + remote_ip

#Send some data to remote server
message = "GET / HTTP/1.1\r\n\r\n"

try :
    #Set the whole string
    s.sendall(message)
except socket.error:
    #Send failed
    print 'Send failed'
    sys.exit()

print 'Message send successfully'

#Now receive data
reply = s.recv(4096)

print reply

Simple Server

Servers work in a little different manner... they do the following steps

  • Open a socket
  • Bind to a address(and port).
  • Listen for incoming connections.
  • Accept connections
  • Read/Send

In this example the server loops non-stop

import socket
import sys

HOST = ''   # Symbolic name meaning all available interfaces
PORT = 5000 # Arbitrary non-privileged port

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
print 'Socket created'

try:
    s.bind((HOST, PORT))
except socket.error , msg:
    print 'Bind failed. Error Code : ' + str(msg[0]) + ' Message ' + msg[1]
    sys.exit()

print 'Socket bind complete'

s.listen(10)
print 'Socket now listening'

#now keep talking with the client
while 1:
    #wait to accept a connection - blocking call
    conn, addr = s.accept()
    print 'Connected with ' + addr[0] + ':' + str(addr[1])

    data = conn.recv(1024)
    reply = 'OK...' + data
    if not data: 
        break

    conn.sendall(reply)

conn.close()
s.close()

Whilst this is a server - it assumes that the clients just sit there. The server also just accepts one client after another.

But as this is a basic server - we should probably not worry too much.

Improved Server

The difference here is that when the connection is accepted. Then the Server forks a new connection and that connection does the "read/reply"

import socket
import sys
from thread import *

HOST = ''   # Symbolic name meaning all available interfaces
PORT = 8888 # Arbitrary non-privileged port

s = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
print 'Socket created'

#Bind socket to local host and port
try:
    s.bind((HOST, PORT))
except socket.error , msg:
    print 'Bind failed. Error Code : ' + str(msg[0]) + ' Message ' + msg[1]
    sys.exit()

print 'Socket bind complete'

#Start listening on socket
s.listen(10)
print 'Socket now listening'

#Function for handling connections. This will be used to create threads
def clientthread(conn):
    #Sending message to connected client
    conn.send('Welcome to the server. Type something and hit enter\n') #send only takes string

    #infinite loop so that function do not terminate and thread do not end.
    while True:

        #Receiving from client
        data = conn.recv(1024)
        reply = 'OK...' + data
        if not data: 
            break

        conn.sendall(reply)

    #came out of loop
    conn.close()

#now keep talking with the client
while 1:
    #wait to accept a connection - blocking call
    conn, addr = s.accept()
    print 'Connected with ' + addr[0] + ':' + str(addr[1])

    #start new thread takes 1st argument as a function name to be run, second is the tuple of arguments to the function.
    start_new_thread(clientthread ,(conn,))

s.close()